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Homosexuality refers to a person being sexually and romantically attracted to people of the same sex. Men who are attracted to other men can be called “male homosexual” or gay and a woman who is attracted to another woman can also be called gay but is usually called “female homosexual” or lesbian. People who are attracted to both men and women are called “bisexual”. In total, the LGBT (English: LGBT) community consists of gay, bisexual and gendered people. It is hard to say how many people are gay. The existence of homosexuality has been found in all cultures and countries, although the governments of some countries refute this.
Since 1975, the American Psychological Association has instructed psychologists to remove the stigma of mental illness on homosexual (gay and lesbian) and bisexual (bisexual) attitudes. The field of psychology deals with the well-being of people and people. Therefore, he is also related to the dangers he faces. Gay-lesbian-bisexuals have always experienced prejudice and discrimination. They have negative effects on the mind. This series of questions and answers is designed to provide a better understanding of sexual orientation. We also want to highlight that
How does discrimination and prejudice against gay and bisexual people affect them?
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What is sexual orientation?
Sexual orientation is the permanent instinct of romantic, emotional and / or sexual attraction toward men, women, or both sexes. Sexual orientation means self-identification that depends on attraction and its related behavior. It is also a result of sexual orientation of people experiencing this kind of attraction to become interconnected communities. Several decades of research have shown that human sexual orientation is a “continuum”, that is, an extension between two ends. A famous psychologist named ‘Kinsey’ wrote that most people have the ability to be attracted to both men and women. Some people are equally attracted to both, then some are more attracted towards men and some more towards women. Such people are less attracted to their jeans (completely gay) or completely attracted to other jeans (completely heterosexual). Some people are more attracted to men, and some are more attracted to women.
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However, the general discussion of sexual orientation is discussed in three categories:
1) Heterosexual or heterosexual: emotional, romantic, and / or sexual attraction to people of the other sex, such as a man towards a woman; Or female to male)
2) Homosexual or Homosexual: Emotional, romantic, and / or sexual attraction towards people of the same sex, ie male attraction to man (called “gay”), and woman to woman (called “lesbian” “), And
3) bisexual or bisexual: emotional, romantic, and / or sexual attraction to men and women: that is, bisexual man toward men and women; And bisexual woman’s sexual attraction towards men and women).
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This range of behavior and attraction is found in different cultures and countries around the world. The above three categories are used in many cultures to identify – the most commonly used identities are ‘lesbian’ (women attracted to women), ‘gay’ (men attracted to men), and bisexual (men And women, both attracted to men or women). However, some people have their own distinct identity apart from these. There are some people who do not use these names at all.
Sexual orientation differs from other categories of sex and gender. These other categories are biological sex (physically and genetically characterized as being male or female, such as the presence or absence of the penis or vagina, etc.), gender identity or commodity (the mental sense of being male or female), and social gender-directed roles. (Meaning those cultural understandings that determine how masculine behavior is and how feminine behavior is). Sexual orientation is different from all three.
Sexual orientation is often only related to individual traits such as biological gender, gender-directed self-identification, or age. This view is incomplete because sexual orientation is defined only in terms of relationships with others. But there is much more involved in sexual orientation. Like other people, homosexuals also express their sexual orientation through their behavior with their lover, including behaviors such as putting their hands up, kissing, etc. Sexual orientation closely resembles deep intimate relationships that meet deeply felt needs, such as love, attachment, and intimacy.
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In addition to sexual behavior, what reinforces these bonds is behavior that does not belong to sex – such as physical affection between the couple, mutual goals and values, mutual support, and ongoing commitment between them. Therefore, sexual orientation is not merely a personal characteristic of someone inside. Rather, it defines a mass group that has the potential to find such people a satisfying and romantic relationship – a relationship that is an inexhaustible part of every human personal identity.
How do people know if they are gay or bisexual?
According to current scientific and professional understanding, the basic attractions that form the basis of adult sexual orientation usually begin to emerge between the middle of childhood and the onset of adolescence. These romantic, emotional and sexual attraction trends can occur without any prior sexual experience. People can be aware of their sexual orientation even in a celibate state whether they are gay, bisexual, or heterosexual.
Gay and bisexual people have different experiences of sexual orientation. In fact, some people already know that they are homosexual or bisexual long before they attempt to pursue relationships with others. Conversely, some people participate in sex (with gay and / or heterosexual partners / partners) before being assigned a clear label on their sexual orientation. Many people find it difficult to accept sexual orientation identities because of prejudice and discrimination. Hence, recognizing the identity “I am gay / I am bisexual” can be a slow and difficult process for anyone.
What causes a person to have a specific sexual orientation?
There is no consensus among scientists about the exact reasons a person may develop a heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual orientation. Possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation have been researched by research. But no conclusions have emerged that allow scientists to say that ‘yes, sexual orientation is determined by “this” particular factor or “these” factors. Many feel that both nature and upbringing play complex roles. Most people feel that they did not choose their sexual orientation on their own.
What role do prejudices and discrimination play in the lives of gays and bisexuals?
Gay and bisexual people in the United States face widespread prejudice, discrimination, and violence due to their sexual orientation. Intense prejudice against them was widespread in the 20th century. Public opinion surveys of the decades of the 1980s, 1980s, and 1990s suggest that ordinary people behaved strongly against homosexuals. Nowadays the public opposes this discrimination. But even today, hostility towards gay and lesbian is regularly found in American society. Prejudices against bisexuals also exist at comparable levels. In fact, bisexual people face discrimination not only from heterosexual people, but also from some homosexual people.
Discrimination against sexual orientation takes many forms. The high amount of harassment and violence against gay people in American society is a sign of intense anti-gay bias. Numerous surveys indicate that almost all homosexual people experience literal violence (such as abuse). In addition, there is widespread discrimination against them in matters of employment and housing.
This bias and discrimination has had a negative impact during the HIV / AIDS epidemic. In the early days of the HIV / AIDS epidemic, there was a belief that it was a “homosexual” disease. Due to this mistaken belief, it was too late to solve the question of major social upheaval that arose from this disease. At that time, homosexual and bisexual people were subjected to a greater stigma, as they were more affected by the disease. The stigma of gay / bisexual men with HIV / AIDS, and the misconception of some that ‘all gay and bisexual men were infected’, was also due to this stigma.
What is the psychological effect of prejudice and discrimination?
Prejudice and discrimination have social and personal effects. The prejudice and discrimination against homosexual and bisexual people at the social level is reflected in the stereotypical image (“These people are like that, they do this”) found in the everyday lives of such people. These assumptions do not easily disappear, even if they are not supported by evidence. These prejudices often become an excuse to disproportionately treat gay and bisexual people. For example, restrictions on job opportunities, the possibility of maternity or paternity, and the recognition given to relationships are due to these same misconceptions.
On a personal level, gay and bisexual people try to deny, or conceal, their sexual orientation because of the negative consequences of prejudice and discrimination. Although many gay and lesbian people manage to deal with social stigma against homosexuality, this pattern of prejudice can have serious negative effects on their health and well-being. Negative effects (stigma) of prejudice and discrimination may be less due to other things (race, ethnicity, religion, or disability).
Gay lesbian people are often targets of widespread prejudice, discrimination, and violence. This is a matter of considerable concern in terms of his mental health. The major sources of stress for gay / bisexual people are gender bias, discrimination related to sexual orientation, and anti-gay violence. Social support is important to combat stress. But anti-gay attitudes and discrimination can make it difficult for gay / bisexual people to find such support.
Is homosexuality a mental disorder?
No. Gay, lesbian and bisexual trends are not disorders. Research has found no inherent association between sexual orientation and psychopathology. Both heterosexual and homosexual behavior are common aspects of human sexuality. Both have been written in different cultures and historical eras.
These complex prejudices show same- and bisexual people as mentally imbalanced. But several decades of research and physician experience have concluded that even and same-sex trends are normal in human experience. This is what all the main medical and mental health organizations of America say. Gay, lesbian and bisexual relationships are normal forms of human relationships. Therefore, these mainstream organizations have long ago erased the classification of homosexuality as a mental disorder.
What are the therapies aimed at changing sexual orientation from gay to heterosexual?
All major national mental health organizations have officially expressed concern about treatments to change these sexual orientation. To date, no scientifically adequate research has said that therapies aimed at changing sexual orientation (“change therapy” – anticoagulation or conversion therapy) are safe or effective. Perhaps these conversion therapies confirm the prejudices that create a negative environment against lesbian, gay, and bisexual people, especially those who grew up in a more conservative religious environment.
Therapists can help a person experiencing homosexual attraction like this:
1) Actively helping them deal with social prejudices against homosexuality
2) Assisting in successfully resolving issues arising / associated with internal conflicts, and
3) To actively help in leading a happy and satisfied life.
Professional mental health organizations have ordered their members to
1) Respect the right of a person (client) to make decisions about himself;
2) Be sensitive to the client’s race, culture, ability, age, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, religion, social status, language, and physical / mental disability.
3) Help eliminate biases based on these factors.
What is “disclosure” and why is it important?
Disclosure is associated with many aspects of gay and bisexual experiences: self-awareness of being gay, telling one or many people about this attraction, making it widely visible about this attraction, and gay-lesbian – Identification of being a member of a straight community. In English it is called ‘coming out’, and this phrase literally means “coming out”.